A treinta años del sorteo como forma de ingreso a las escuelas y colegios de la UNLP

A partir de 1986 las escuelas y colegios de la UNLP abandonan el ingreso por examen eliminatorio e inauguran el ingreso directo que contempla el mecanismo del sorteo público cuando los aspirantes superan el número de vacantes disponibles. El debate que hizo posible este cambio de perspectiva encontró su fundamento no solo en la crítica en torno a un sistema de competencia abierta en donde disputaban todos contra todos sin reglas formales o mecanismos explícitos que delimitaran los modos y criterios bajo los cuales se producía sino también en la consideración de principios democratizantes que hacen visible que no todos los/as alumnos/as están en igualdad de condiciones para tener éxito en el mismo. Como dice en la resolución Nº 672 de 1985 que estableció el ingreso por sorteo:

Esta nueva y definitiva etapa de consolidación democrática, exige definir un modelo de educación que, en lo que a esta universidad se refiere, atañe en buena medida a la democratización del ingreso. (…) la realidad demuestra que no existe prueba conocida que pueda igualar las posibilidades de aquellos que desde su nacimiento carecen del contexto cultural, económico y social con que otros se ven beneficiados.

De lo que se infiere que el mérito como principio seleccionador desconoce las desiguales posibilidades de tener un buen desempeño en el examen, derivado de desiguales herramientas, trayectorias y posibilidades socioeconómicas. Asimismo, muestra que el momento del examen se constituye principalmente en una competencia entre personas del mismo sector social, que luego deviene en una socialización escolar entre iguales.

De modo que, instalar el sorteo como forma de ingreso implica romper con una marca de origen fuertemente selectiva que concebía a los colegios dependientes de las universidades como los formadores de la elite dirigente y como un circuito educativo que culminaba en la universidad. Por ellos transitaban las familias pertenecientes a los sectores socioeconómicamente más favorecidos, los/as hijos/as de profesionales para los cuales estudiar en estos colegios constituía una tradición familiar, y al mismo tiempo, una estrategia de distinción que colaboraba en la reproducción del lugar de origen.

Cambiar la forma de ingreso, es una condición necesaria para garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades en el acceso a nuestras escuelas y colegios y comenzar a construir un universo heterogéneo de aspirantes. Más recientemente, un hito muy importante en la democratización del Sistema Educativo lo constituyó la Ley Educación Nacional Nº 26.206 que estableció a la educación secundaria como obligatoria. De esta manera, comenzaba un camino que, partiendo del reconocimiento del derecho a la educación de todos/as los/as ciudadanos/as, se proponía pensar una educación secundaria inclusiva que rompiera con el mandato que la asociaba a la selección socioeducativa.

El ingreso por sorteo no garantiza per se una población más heterogénea en términos sociales y culturales, ni desconoce que las desigualdades socioeconómicas, que se traducen en un determinado capital cultural, condicionan la elección. Es decir, muchas de las familias que inscriben a sus hijos/as son deudoras de las expectativas propias de su pertenencia de clase. En este sentido, es que el ingreso por sorteo como instancia democratizadora debe ser acompañado de otras estrategias que colaboren en la construcción de escuelas más democráticas, justas y plurales. Se abren entonces una serie de desafíos en vistas a repensar los sentidos asociados al sorteo, entre ellos: la ampliación de la heterogeneidad de familias que aspiran a las escuelas de la UNLP (que año a año crece), trabajar en torno a la igualdad en el acceso a la información y las facilidades para la inscripción en el sorteo, la revisión de las prácticas de enseñanza para que no se reproduzcan prácticas selectivas/expulsivas al interior de las instituciones, seguir generando dispositivos de acompañamiento de las trayectorias de los/as alumnos/as, sostener los espacios de formación y actualización para los/as docentes, continuar con los programas de becas para estudiantes, favorecer las líneas de trabajo tendientes a garantizar la permanencia y el egreso de todos/as los/as alumnos/as, promover la construcción de vínculos respetuosos de las diferencias y políticas de cuidado de los/as alumnos/as, docentes y familias. A lo largo de estos treinta años, los distintos equipos de gestión han profundizado muchas de estas estrategias de inclusión que hoy continuamos resignificando e implementando como redes de Programas de intervención en el convencimiento de que la escuela asuma estos desafíos y siga generando los debates necesarios para hacer visible los sentidos de la educación como derecho.

Prof. Laura Viviana Agratti

Autor: Prof. Laura Viviana Agratti

Prosecretaria de Asuntos Académicos de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata

189 opiniones en “A treinta años del sorteo como forma de ingreso a las escuelas y colegios de la UNLP”

  1. Thanks ladies!I still haven’t done anything about the collapsed kitchen yet, and school holidays are as good as over now.I take consolation in that Caitlin’s found other toys to play with now and had kinda little-bit lost interest in it. Besides, older cousins have also donated their &#pe80;pro22r” Barbie dollhouse to her (I generally don’t approve of anything Barbie, much less the older versions of severely disproportionate figures and of Scandinavian descendant)…Ah well…

  2. Creo que tendrían que cambiar el método,sorteo no va más hay muchos pibes para una zarpada escuela. O poner más vacantes.

    Por lo que leí en grupos
    La gente no estuvo muy conforme con el sorteo,salieron todos número altos tendría que ser repartido.
    Juan Alberto

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    22. Is it me, or does Santorum spend way more time getting sweaty over gay sex than any straight man should…?Just Sayin'.If history and irony are in abundance, I see a press conference and a tearful apology for "letting down my God, my family and my supporters" somewhere in Santorum's future.And the dude has a slight "Google Problem".

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    34. Good catch. Jackie Chan has always been pretty influenced by the comedians and stuntmen of the silent era. Though, as you say, it’s unclear just how much input Jackie had on Outlaw Brothers as a whole. Thanks for bringing this up. What did you think of Outlaw Brothers?

    35. Muito obrigada pela ajuda!É maravilhoso poder ter uma resposta rápida para uma coisa que nos aflinge, e, além de rápida, extremamente clara e educada.Parabéns pelo trabalho e continuem ajudando as pessoas seja através dos posts, ou tirando dúvidas nos comentários.Um abraço,Adriana

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    39. Jazzman: how about each of us lists the things we like in our current Constitution (like the Bills of Rights!) and the stuff we don’t like (like the arbitrary separation of Executive from Legislature and the de facto Two Party State). Add to that the stuff we like in the constitutions of admirable democracies abroad, and the stuff from abroad we’d prefer to avoid.Blend for ten minutes, pour over ice, and taste for palatability?Modify as necessary?(Allison might make a great moderator, if one of us can sweet-talk her into it! I nominate you or Potter…)

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